We explain the long jump in athletics, its history, rules, and measurement forms. Also, what is the current world record?
What is the long jump?
The long jump or long jump is an athletics event that is part of the Olympic Games, both in its female and male version. Athletes try to cover the most significant amount of horizontal surface after taking a jump with impulse, that is, a jump at the end of a short race.
The drop is usually softened by a smooth sandbar, on which the competitors leave their footprints so that the judges can later measure the distance traveled.
Sportingly, the long jump is made up of three phases or stages, which make up the athletic technique:
The race phase. Competitors run at maximum speed on a surface of 16 to 20 meters (50 in Olympic competitions) to take as much clean and jerk as possible in preparation for the jump.
The impulse phase. In which the athlete tries to propel himself, that is, jump vertically, without losing the momentum accumulated during the race, to reach a good speed in the next phase. To do this, a penultimate step is usually taken longer than the rest, and the last short step is for the jump.
The suspension phase. Also called the “flight phase,” the stage in which the athlete is in the air, from the jump to his landing in the sand, and in which he will ideally cover a good portion of the ground. This phase ends when the first part of his body touches the ground, leaving a mark considered the measurement point. However, it would help if you were careful not to lean your torso forward, as a hand left behind will delay the spot considered by the judges by centimeters.
history of the long jump
long jump history
The long jump was part of the ancient Olympics from 708 BC.
The long jump has been among the Olympic disciplines since its edition in Athens in 1896, since the first modern edition. However, the women’s version of the long jump was practiced for the first time in history at the 1948 London Olympics.
On the other hand, there is evidence that it was already practiced in the Olympic Games of Antiquity from 708 BC. C., within the test known as pentathlon. Initially, ancient athletes jumped with small barbells or weights, which are not used today.
However, the long jump is one of the Olympic disciplines that has changed the least over time. The current technique began to be used in 1925, and its greatest exponent was the American Hart Hubbart, with a record of 7.89 meters, which took ten years to be broken by Jesse Owens, also from the United States, who reached 8 meters.
long jump rules
The long jump will be considered invalid provided that the athlete:
Jump after the iron or take-off mark, indicating where the jump should be made.
Modify or touch the spots left by his body in the sand.
Performs somersaults or pirouettes or takes more time than stipulated.
It leaves marks on the surrounding terrain, closer to the launch area than its mark on the sand.
long jump measure
long jump measurement
After measuring the distance of the mark, the sand is flattened for the next competitor.
The distance covered is measured from the jump platform to the nearest edge of the mark left in the sand, regardless of the part of the body that left it. To do this, a tape measure is used, and after the measurement is taken, the sand is flattened again for the next competitor.
Each athlete has three jumps, that is, three different opportunities, from which the best result is considered. In the event of a tie, the second-best attempt will serve to determine the winner.
Long jump without momentum
The long jump without impulse or long jump without provocation is a test similar to the one described here, which was practiced for the first time in the 1900 Paris Olympics, and remained in force during the following three editions: San Luis 1904, London 1908, and Stockholm 1912, as well as the Intercalated Games in Athens in 1906.
The same set of rules characterized it as the long-running jump, but in this case, the athlete stood in front of the sandbank and had to jump without impulse, with the feet together and the body rigid. The great winner in this version was the American Ray Ewry, winner of four gold medals.
Current long jump world record
Galina Chistiakova has held the women’s world record since 1988.
Currently, the long jump world record belongs to the following athletes:
Mike Powell (United States) with 8.95 meters, obtained in Tokyo 1991.
Galina Chistiakova (Soviet Union) with 7.52 meters, received in Leningrad 1988.